Paris Agreement Indc
infographics.pbl.nl/indc/ – The PBL Netherlands INDC Pledge Tool, a graphic map of the world with online series of programs. At a press conference in Bonn on 20 October on the sidelines of the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform (ADP) in Bonn, Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, said that the presentation of so many INDCs representing such a large share of emissions was a “historic and unprecedented effort” and “the first success of Paris”, with extensive consultations in each country.  She stressed that countries must address the anchoring of INDCs in the Paris Agreement, which should facilitate a way or mechanism for “strengthening” commitments.  The number of INDC updates will be a central theme in Paris, with various options remaining on the table, ranging from “every five years for all parties” to different cycles for developed and developing countries and potential indicative targets in addition to absolute goals. Many expect some kind of “ratchet mechanism” to ensure that the Paris Agreement is “sustainable and relevant” in the long term, and countries are able to “expand” the contributions already offered by a process of promoting actions to Paris.  Thus, negotiators and observers are increasingly calling for a flexible agreement, in which commitments can be increased without altering the agreement itself. One topic on which most people believe is that the debate on how and when countries will review their commitments will extend into the final hours of the last day of the Paris climate conference. Delegates initially disagreed on what the INDC should abstain from and whether they would be part of the Paris Agreement. In 2013, the language of compromise in Warsaw was deliberately vague as to whether NDCs should only reference emission reduction targets or whether they should also include adaptation and funding targets. Developed countries argued that DCS should contain only mitigation targets, while many developing countries said this would lead to a weak Paris agreement, as lack of support would prevent them from presenting ambitious plans.  Developing countries therefore insisted that the INDCs presented by industrialized countries should look at ways of implementing (finance, technology and capacity building).